Sunday, May 17, 2020
Family relationships, especially involving spouses can create difficulties and challenges for one or the other, in-turn could create an impact in their relationship. Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ are short stories centralized on the view of two married women, the challenges they endure in their relationships and coping with their spouse. Women wanting to have freedom, having to deal with an illness and their position in the household can create such challenges for spouses. Freedom to women means to be treated as an equal to their spouse, to avoid being controlled with every aspect of their lives. In Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of and Hour and Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The YellowÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These facts could be assumed that she was starting to get mentally unstable being imprisoned, with her spouse not willing to help her; a mental illness was present. The 18th century is known for husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s being the dominant gender whereas their spouse is looked upon as Ã¢â¬Å"fragileÃ¢â¬ while their thoughts and suggestions being ignored. The husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s duty would be that they are the income earners whereas the wife would preform her duties as what a typical wife would do during that era; run the household. Women would want to speak up but are afraid that it would show disrespect and as time goes on would eventually lead to resentment. In Ã¢â¬Å"Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ Mrs. Mallard was hearing the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s passing, upon receiving it, she would have such joy inside her which led to her death; Ã¢â¬Å"when the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s came they said she had died of heart disease Ã¢â¬â of joy that killsÃ¢â¬ (Chopin 4). The story doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t elaborate the details of her marriage, only in the present, assumptions could be made how Mrs. MillardÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage was as a woman in the 18th century, and especially with the reaction she had upon hearing the news. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s husband was the main income earner with a Ã¢â¬Å"high standing positionÃ¢â¬ (Gilman 55), while the wife was home. A quote said by the husband was Ã¢â¬Å"what is it little girl? He asked. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go walking about like that Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢ll getShow MoreRelatedThe Yellow Wallpaper: A Look Into Post-Partum Depression1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCharlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s story, The Yellow Wallpaper, portrays the life and mind of a woman suffering from post-partum depression in the late eighteenth century. Gilman uses setting to strengthen the impact of her story by allowing the distant country mansion symbolize the loneliness of her narrator, Jane. Gilman also uses flat characters to enhance the depth of JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts; however, GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s use of narrative technique impacts her story the most. In The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins GilmanRead Mor eRelationship Between The Story of an Hour The Yellow Wallpaper1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOutline * Story of an Hour and Yellow Wallpaper have challenges that were faced by the protagonists, setting looked to be in the same era with men being in charge of their wives lives. * Both women were emotionally and psychically trapped in their relationships * Both wanted freedom from their husbands * Both protagonists had an illness, which lead to had an opposite effect on both characters * Mrs. Millard had a heart condition and the narrator would develop a mentalRead MoreKate Chopin s The Yellow Wallpaper1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescalled, Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s writing called, Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã¢â¬ There are many similarities and differences between both Victorian womenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives and writing. This paper will compare and contrast the short stories written by Kate Chopin and Charlotte Gilman. When the audience reads both Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and Charlotte GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ there is a strong voice of Victorian women. The nineteenth century families were largeRead MoreOppression In The Yellow Wallpaper1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a woman who is a wife and mother is forced into a confined, isolated house to help with her mental illness. The woman is told by her husband, a physician, that the confinement is the best cure for her. The short story shows how the woman slowly succumbs to insanity as she spends her days in her room locked away from society. The author, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, was known as a prominent feminist and social thinker during the late eighteenth centuryRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper1915 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWhen Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is viewed within the scopes of New Historical, Feminis t, Psychoanalytical, Ethical and Reader response criticisms, the reader should first be imparted with the understanding of who Charlotte Perkins Gilman was, what she stood for, the time period in which the story was written, and how aspects of her cultural and historical background related to it. Second, how the circumstances imposed upon womenÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of thought. Third, the reader shall ascertain how FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s PsychoanalyticalRead MoreJames Joyces Araby And The Yellow Wallpaper1985 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJames Joyce and The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The 1914 short story, Araby, follows a young boy going through his preteen years with a growing obsession for ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sister. Despite the fact that she is much older than himself and is involved in a nearby convent, he ignores these glaring problems and blindly continues in his love for this girl until he finally comes to realize that he cannot, in fact, be with her and is deeply saddened. The Ye llow Wallpaper by Charlotte PerkinsRead MoreMedia Magic Making Class Invisible2198 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesupper-class families were twice as likely to obtain training beyond high school and four times as likely to attain a postgraduate degreeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (pp.342-343). Sewell concluded: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âsocioeconomic backgroundÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦operates independently of academic ability at every stage in the process of educational attainmentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ( pp.342-343). The point here is that again, if your parents make $100,000 a year, you are most likely to succeed far in life and go to college get your degree. However, if your family makes $10,000Read MoreThe taste of melon by borden deal11847 Words Ã |Ã 48 PagesThe Taste of Melon B O R D E N Focus Your Learning Reading this story will help you: Ã¢â" relate your own experience to the story theme Ã¢â" analyse story structure Ã¢â" identify changes in the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective Ã¢â" interpret charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ motives 130 Look Closely D E A L When I think of the summer I was sixteen, a lot of things some crowding in to be thought about. We had moved just the year before, and sixteen is still young enough that the bunch makes a difference. I had a bunchRead MoreDieting Makes People Fat Essay19490 Words Ã |Ã 78 Pagesstitch. Stitch,aka experiment 626, is one mischievous alien!. Thankfully, he has Lilo around to calm him down. Maybe someday hell know the different between good or bad.I really love himÃ . Lilo amp; Stitch is a 2002 American animated science fiction/family film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released on June 21, 2002.Ã Kullasatree 010 3ENÃ WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE DRINK? I love to drink strawberry yogurt smoothie about 2-3 times per week. You have to try out this quick and easy recipeRead Morepreschool Essay46149 Words Ã |Ã 185 PagesCalifornia Alliance Concerned with SchoolAge Parenting and Pregnancy Prevention (CACSAP/Cal-SAFE) California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE) California Association for the Education of Young Children (CAEYC) California Association of Family Child Care (CAFCC) California Association of Latino Superintendents and Administrators (CALSA) California Child Care Coordinators Association California Child Care Resource and Referral Network (CCCRRN) California Child Development Administrators
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Because millions have been able to free ride the health care system Obama emplaced a new health reform changing thousands of lives, making healthcare affordable for all people and giving citizens who are already covered new or more benefits. Healthcare has always been a pricey yet necessary asset to life. In the 1920s the middle class seemed to have struggled with the growing cost of medical visits. In the late 1920s a Dallas hospital started to offer joint affordable healthcare for only $.50 a month. Soon other states started to use the same method. The US began to identify the process as the Blue Cross. In that same year the stock market crashed and the Great Depression started. Essentially crushing everyones financial stability, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When John Kennedy became president the American medical so you going to promote Medicare a health insurance for people with disabilities in stage diseases and people over 65. Hed advertised on the television, the radio, la rge mailings, and speaking tours, even churches began to involve themselves to support Medicare. Kennedy spoke to one large groups of people who traveled across the country to support the legislation. While Kennedy failed to pass Medicare the issue didnt die. Healthcare continue to advance and so did the price. When Lyndon Johnson went into office more than 60% of the voters supported Medicare (HNN). With large gains in both houses Johnson was swayed to push forward with the Medicare act in 1965 Congress passed Medicare and the Social Security act that included the health benefits and Medicaid which was provided to lower income Americans (HNN). In 1773 Richard Nixon won his presidency. The government came up with a reform involving private enterprise to promote the Health Maintenance Organization which were to require doctors toShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of Obamacare And No Insurance Company1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesserious illness like Cancer. One things is for certain, health insurance is beneficial to everyone and everyone should have it. The President Barack Obama felt that everyone should have health care as well and so he created Obamacare. Health Insurance is a must have now that Obamacare is in effect and no insurance company can deny anyone for coverage, no matter their illness nor age. The UnitedHealth Group is a fortune 500 company and they serve over 85 million patients all over the world and that numberRead MoreBenefits Of Obamacare : Huy Gip2224 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages BENEFITS OF OBAMACARE Huy Gip University of Central Florida Abstract Health has become a primary concern in the United States of America. Bridging the gap between the rich and the poor in a purely capitalistic nation has proven to be quite a task. Languishing in poverty in a super power nation is even more demeaning in comparison to poverty stricken nation, which is expected. The various inputs that steer economic development work in tandem with the policies that have been signedRead MoreThe Many Benefits of ObamaCare Essay1768 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAct created Medicare and Medicaid. Although this law has faced fierce opposition, the Affordable Care Act will help Americans lead healthier lifestyles, while increasing their financial stability. Under the Affordable Care Act, also known as ObamaCare, insurance companies are no longer allowed to discriminate against individuals with pre-existing health conditions. Uninsured children with pre-existing conditions, such as cancer or diabetes, are now able to access health insurance plans. NotRead More The Benefits of ObamaCare Are Greater Than the Costs Essay694 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesless and less towards their employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare which in turn has made insurance too costly for the average employee to continue the same amount of healthcare coverage. While companies have been lessening their contribution to employee health benefits insurances have continually raised their prices. In the recent years between 2001 and 2007 the cost of health care premiums has escalated almost 80% (Health Care Marketplace Project, 2008). To understand the dispute surrounding the constitutionalityRead MoreObamacare: The Future of Healthcare1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAffordable Care Act or Ã¢â¬Å"ObamacareÃ¢â¬ is the law that will change health care forever. Obamacare will help Americans because it will give every American access to healthcare, lowers the healthcare costs while improving the quality, and will give patients new consumer protections. My first reason for supporting Obamacare is that there is now a variety of new consumer rights and protections for patients. Obamacare is the most munificent healthcare law in American history. Before Obamacare, patients could getRead MoreHealth Care Controversy958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Health Care Controversy Essay ObamaCare, also known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a Health care reform law that was signed on March 23, 2010. ObamaCareÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to provide more Americans with affordable health care insurance. ObamaCare also hopes to improve the quality of healthcare and health insurance in America, regulate the healthcare industry, and reduce the cost of healthcare in the United States. ObamaCare is made up of ten titles; I: Quality, AffordableRead MoreObamacare : The Affordable Health Care Act1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesknown as Obamacare. This new program has been so purely monumental, because government until then had not been directly involved with health care as much as they are. Benefits include lower costs, and thousands of uninsured individuals and families with health care. Downsides are more and higher taxes, and health insurance goes up. There has been much controversy centered around this topic, and many debates bring the good and bad points of Obama care. One significant fact about Obamacare, is thatRead MoreObamacare : The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesObamaCare, officially known os the the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a health care reform law signed in 2010 by President Barack Obama. Many of the lawÃ¢â¬â¢s provisions are already in effect and the rest continue to roll out until 2022. Obama care offers patients ways to afford healthcare and get better treatment. The plan to put Obamacare into effect started in 2010 but was actually put into action in 2014. The Affordable Care Act also known as Obamacare increases the quality, accessibilityRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act ( Aca ) Or Obamacare?1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Pros and Cons of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or Obamacare? Who Benefits and Who gets Hurt? Chanokporn Srisuwan, Student MBAA 605 Business, Government, and Society Mercy College School of Business- MBA Program August 04, 2016 Abstract The propose of this article is to present the advantages and disadvantages of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or Obamacare which make all Americans insurable, by requiring insurers to accept all applicants at rates based onRead MoreEssay on ObamaCare and How It Greatly Affects Our Health Care System1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesObamaCare and How It Greatly Effects Our Health Care System Final Research Paper: ObamaCare and How It Greatly Effects Our Health Care System As the years go on, everything around us is constantly changing and becoming more advanced. The recent election of our president has and will force us to see some very big changes in the next few months. ObamaCare also known as the Affordable Care Act was set in place by President Obama in order to reduce health care costs and give affordable health insurance
When it comes to corruption in politics, no one is immune. Both parties have had their share. Not too long ago three members of Congress who are Republican were indicted due to political and financial scandals (Wallis, 2012). Two are currently under investigation and one is in prison (Wallis, 2012). Part of the problem in these corruption scandals involves the ability of interest groups to determine policy as well as pork barrel spending (Wallis, 2012). While corruption takes place at all levels of government, it has been particularly noticeable in the U.S. Congress. In the United States, there are two Senators elected from each state and numerous Congressmen who comprise the United States Congress. Of those elected, there have beenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Those in Nevada thought they might influence him since he was in a position of high authority (Solomon, 2011). In this situation, one has to wonder about the seriousness of the corruption. The article goes on to report: He defended the gifts, saying they would never influence his position on the bill and was simply trying to learn how his legislation might affect an important home state industry (Solomon, 2011). Is he correct? Is he allowed to accept gifts if in fact they do not influence his decisions? The general rule is as follows: Senate ethics rules generally allow lawmakers to accept gifts from federal, state or local governments, but specifically warn against taking such giftsÃ¢â¬âparticularly on multiple occasionsÃ¢â¬âwhen they might be connected to efforts to influence official actions (Solomon, 2011). While perhaps the Senator was within the law in accepting the gifts, certainly it has the appearance of impropriety. In the manual, examples are provided as to what is not acceptable, such as a time when an Oregon lawmaker took gifts for personal use from the president of the South Carolina State University (Solomon, 2011). The school was trying to exert its influence (Solomon, 2011). Wha t do the experts say? The article goes on to explain: Several ethics experts said Reid should have paid for the tickets, which were close to the ring and worth between several hundred and several thousand dollars each, to avoid the appearance he wasShow MoreRelatedThe Corruption Of Politics And Politics1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinstitutions, corruption can take place (Lederman, Loayza and Soares, 2001, p. 1-2). Canada prides itself as one of the top countries with the least perceived level of public corruption (Transparency National, 2015; Atkinson, 2011, p. 448). Even with CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s good reputation, political corruption still continues to plague the system and takes the form of misuse in election finance and lobbying of interest groups (Atkinson and Mancuso, 1985, p. 462; Atkinson, 2011, p. 448). The definition of corruption helpsRead MorePolitics Is Fueled By Corruption1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPolitics is fueled by corruption. It causes government involved citizens to over use their power into manipulating others to achieve what they want. In All the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Men, written by Robert Pen Warren, Warren distributes politics to show how Willie Stark transformed. His character gradually deteriorates as a person throughout the political novel leading up to his death. Warren writes to exemplify politics and how it ruined lives of well-rounded people. Warren demonstrates the role of politics asRead MoreEssay on The Olympics: Politics, Scandal, and Corruption3790 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pages ABSTRACT: The purity of the Olympics has been smeared by scandal, corruption, boycotts, political disputes and even acts of terrorism. Sadly, politics have taken control of the Olympics and turned it into a political and money-making extravaganza. Olympic boycotts became a way for countries to protest each other. Hitler tried to use the Games to prove his belief of racial superiority. Wars interfered with the Olympics. Bloodshed even covered the Olympics, in the 1972 Munich Games where terroristsRead MoreEssay on The Role of Youth in Politics1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin politics. The famous writer Srirangam Srinivas wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Our country is not in the hands of lazy and corrupted old politicians, this country is ours i.e. youthÃ¢â¬ . Young people between the ages 18 to 25 are the future of this country and its political system. The young people of America have a responsibility to be involved with politics and with their civic duties. The youth in America must be involved in po litics to ensure that America stays a country of freedom, and to combat the corruption in politicsRead MorePolitics, Realism, Liberalism And Liberty1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStudying Politics challenges thoughts on existing theories and helps to develop the understanding of political concepts that are often deemed to be effective or ineffective. This essay will refer to some concepts and theories such as Political Corruption, Realism, Liberalism and Liberty. It will explore the kind of things academics generally try to find out through studying politics to explore these topics and what they should possibly be looking for instead when studying politics. Political CorruptionRead MorePolitical Corruption Has A Lasting Impression On New York City1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolitical corruption has had a lasting impression on New York City and the empire state all together. It is an attribute to the history and development of the city because it has been an influence on the social, economic and political spheres that are at the heart of society in New York. To develop an understanding of how political corruption shaped New York City and how it has contributed to the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s growth is essential to under the history of the city. It is important also to understand how peopleRead MorePolitical Ignorance And Its Impact On Politics939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmyself, have been found guilty of this very thing. Although, there is really no excuse since this generation is beaming with social networks and media outlets, which naturally spread information rapidly. Political ignorance and the lack of interest in politics can be concerning but if a person in a governmental position is estranged to governmental policy, that is when we have a huge problem. For example, one does not simply become a Senator these days through good intention and high esteem. Although,Read MoreThe Democracy Of The United States Government1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof voting is available, why is the voter turnout so low? Many other countries have a much larger vote turnout than the United States. The reason for this varies; some major points would be the Demographics, voting laws, and political favoritism/corruption that affect the voter turnout. When the people vote for a public figure they expect them to succumb to the will of the people, and not big business. This led to a lack of trust on the United States government. The United States by far is oneRead MoreIs Corruption A World Issue?1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmuch of that information as possible to be able to share with the class as well as make an informed monologue about said topic. My topic of choice is corruption. Ã¢â¬Å"A world Issue can be defined as a situation or problem that occurs on a global scale that has long lasting impacts and requires a complex solutionÃ¢â¬ (World Issues class 2015-2016). Corruption definitely occurs on a global scale. Not all of these instances involve major cases where corporate officials dressed in suits sit around a table andRead MorePlato s Republic : A Political Leader Is The Greatest Way Have A Successful Political Rule997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessociety, his argument is rather convincing. Plato compares the craft of politics to the craft of medicine in book one. When someone is ill, they go to a doctor, not a baker for example. Plato argues that politics is much the same in that someone who is able to s uccessfully run a government must have studied politics and fit the role of a philosopher king. When the ruler or rulers of a society do not meet this requirement, corruption is bound to occur. Plato states that Ã¢â¬Å"excessive action in one direction
Question: Discuss the underwriting risks facing the investment banks involved in an IPO. Explain the auction process for UK government securities. Answer: The risk of underwriting can be said to be the risk of loss on the underwriting activity that happens in the securities industries. Underwriting is an important activity of the investment bank when it comes to an IPO because it mitigates the risk. However when it comes to the investment banks, they face risks in an IPO (Goergen et. al, 2007). IPO is of a greater stature and high stake is involved in it. Firstly, an underwriting risk happens when an investment bank overestimates the demand considering an underwritten issue or when the condition of the market changes all of a sudden. This tends to bring more risk to the investment bank and can lead to financial loss if the demand is not ascertained in a proper and an accurate manner. In this scenario, the underwriter or the investment bank may be forced to hold that chunk of the issue or to sell it in a loss. Holding the issue tend to curb the financial freedom. Secondly, when the issuing firm underperforms subsequent to the issue and puts the investment of the shareholders at a loss, then the investment banks as an underwriter are likely to face class action lawsuit on them that destroys their image and reputations too. This also leads to problem in getting any underwriting assignment in the future leading to failure in future. Hence, it puts the investment bank into a serious problem. The issue may remain unsold and therefore, it may cause a huge to the investment banks. Therefore, underwriting is a risky venture and more when it comes to an IPO. The U.K. government has used auctions as the principle means for issuing its securities. For example, Gilt is a U.K. government security and bidders can choose to take part in the auction through (GEMM) Gilt-edged Market Maker who can directly bid by telephone to the (DMO) Debt Management Office on the behalf of the bidder and are accepted on both competitive and non-competitive basis. The Auction process can be broken down into various parts: Generally eight calendar days before the Auction, an Auction announcement is done that states the amount of stock to be auctioned. The announcement is done so that it comes to the forefront of the stock to be auctioned (Katehakis Puranam, 2012) The prospectus, as well as an application for the sale is published prior to the auction. This helps to brief the public about the auction and can be termed as a window through which the public can look into the prospect of the auction. Public of prospectus is the initial step and it informs the public that an issue is likely to be floated in the market. Listing of the stock takes place on the London Stock exchange with their temporary identification codes like ISIN or Sedol that enables the forward trading of the stock. When the completion of the auction happens, the Auction Result happens in the form of a Press Release that contains details about auctions success and includes the allotment of amount and total bids received, range of bids accepted, and Non-competitive allotment price. When the issue happens, the trade happens through the mechanism of the auction settlement date. After the process of auction, a new ISIN and Sedol number are provided. When the issue is a new one of a current stock then the codes of the current stock are allocated to the security. This leads to the completion of the process and after allocation of the numbers, the proceedings are done. References Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Mudambi, R 2007, The Long-run Performance of UK IPOs: Can it be Predicted?, Managerial Finance, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 401419 Katehakis, M; Puranam, K. S 2012, On optimal bidding in sequential procurement auctions, Operations Research Letters, vol. 40, no.4, pp. 244249
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Charles the Great: Charlemagne Essay By the sword and the cross, Charlemagne (Charles the Great) became master of Western Europe. It was falling into decay when Charlemagne became joint king of the Franks in 768. Except in the monasteries, people had all but forgotten education and the arts. Boldly Charlemagne conquered barbarians and kings alike. By restoring the roots of learning and order, he preserved many political rights and revived culture. Charlemagnes grandfather was Charles Martel, the warrior who crushed the Saracens (see Charles Martel). Charlemagne was the elder son of Bertrade (Bertha Greatfoot) and Pepin the Short, first mayor of the palace to become king of the Franks. Although schools had almost disappeared in the 8th century, historians believe that Bertrade gave young Charles some education and that he learned to read. His devotion to the church became the great driving force of his remarkable life. Charlemagne was tall, powerful, and tireless. His secretary, Eginhard, wrote that Charlemagne had fair hair and a face laughing and merry . . . his appearance was always stately and dignified. He had a ready wit, but could be stern. His tastes were simple and moderate. He delighted in hunting, riding, and swimming. He wore the Frankish dress: linen shirt and breeches, a silk-fringed tunic, hose wrapped with bands, and, in winter, a tight coat of otter or marten skins. Over all these garments he flung a blue cloak, and he always had a sword girt about him. Charlemagnes character was contradictory. In an age when the usual penalty for defeat was death, Charlemagne several times spared the lives of his defeated foes; yet in 782 at Verden, after a Saxon uprising, he ordered 4,500 Saxons beheaded. He compelled the clergy and nobles to reform, but he divorced two of his four wives without any cause. He forced kings and princes to kneel at his feet, yet his mother and his two favorite wives often overruled him in his own household. Charlemagne Begins His Reign In 768, when Charlemagne was 26, he and his brother Carloman inherited the kingdom of the Franks. In 771 Carloman died, and Charlemagne became sole ruler of the kingdom. At that time the northern half of Europe was still pagan and lawless. In the south, the Roman Catholic church was striving to assert its power against the Lombard kingdom in Italy. In Charlemagnes own realm, the Franks were falling back into barbarian ways, neglecting their education and religion. Charlemagne was determined to strengthen his realm and to bring order to Europe. In 772 he launched a 30-year campaign that conquered and Christianized the powerful pagan Saxons in the north. He subdued the Avars, a huge Tatar tribe on the Danube. He compelled the rebellious Bavarian dukes to submit to him. When possible he preferred to settle matters peacefully, however. For example, Charlemagne offered to pay the Lombard king Desiderius for return of lands to the pope, but, when Desiderius refused, Charlemagne seized his kingdom in 773 to 774 and restored the Papal States. The key to Charlemagnes amazing conquests was his ability to organize. During his reign he sent out more than 50 military expeditions. He rode as commander at the head of at least half of them. He moved his armies over wide reaches of country with unbelievable speed, but every move was planned in advance. Before a campaign he told the counts, princes, and bishops throughout his realm how many men they should bring, what arms they were to carry, and even what to load in the supply wagons. These feats of organization and the swift marches later led Napoleon to study his tactics. One of Charlemagnes minor campaigns has become the most famous. In 778 he led his army into Spain to battle the infidel Saracens. On its return, Basques ambushed the rear guard at Roncesvalles, in northern Spain, and killed Count Roland. Roland became a great hero of medieval songs and romances (see Roland). By 800 Charlemagne was the undisputed ruler of Western Europe. His vast realm covered what are now France, Switzerland, Belgium, and The Netherlands. It included half of present-day Italy and Germany, part of Austria, and the Spanish March (border). The broad March reached to the Ebro River. By thus establishing a central government over Western Europe, Charlemagne restored much of the unity of the old Roman Empire and paved the way for the development of modern Europe. Crowned Emperor On Christmas Day in 800, while Charlemagne knelt in prayer in Saint Peters in Rome, Pope Leo III seized a golden crown from the altar and placed it on the bowed head of the king. The throng in the church shouted, To Charles the August, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, long life and victory! Charlemagne is said to have been surprised by the coronation, declaring that he would not have come into the church had he known the popes plan. However, some historians say the pope would not have dared to act without Charlemagnes knowledge. The coronation was the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. To his Coy Mistress Essay ThesisCharlemagne was determined to strengthen his realm and to bring order to Europe. In 772 he launched a 30-year campaign that conquered and Christianized the powerful pagan Saxons in the north. He subdued the Avars, a huge Tatar tribe on the Danube. He compelled the rebellious Bavarian dukes to submit to him. When possible he preferred to settle matters peacefully, however. For example, Charlemagne offered to pay the Lombard king Desiderius for return of lands to the pope, but, when Desiderius refused, Charlemagne seized his kingdom in 773 to 774 and restored the Papal States. The key to Charlemagnes amazing conquests was his ability to organize. During his reign he sent out more than 50 military expeditions. He rode as commander at the head of at least half of them. He moved his armies over wide reaches of country with unbelievable speed, but every move was planned in advance. Before a campaign he told the counts, princes, and bishops throughout his realm how many men they should bring, what arms they were to carry, and even what to load in the supply wagons. These feats of organization and the swift marches later led Napoleon to study his tactics. One of Charlemagnes minor campaigns has become the most famous. In 778 he led his army into Spain to battle the infidel Saracens. On its return, Basques ambushed the rear guard at Roncesvalles, in northern Spain, and killed Count Roland. Roland became a great hero of medieval songs and romances (see Roland). By 800 Charlemagne was the undisputed ruler of Western Europe. His vast realm covered what are now France, Switzerland, Belgium, and The Netherlands. It included half of present-day Italy and Germany, part of Austria, and the Spanish March (border). The broad March reached to the Ebro River. By thus establishing a central government over Western Europe, Charlemagne restored much of the unity of the old Roman Empire and paved the way for the development of modern Europe. Crowned Emperor On Christmas Day in 800, while Charlemagne knelt in prayer in Saint Peters in Rome, Pope Leo III seized a golden crown from the altar and placed it on the bowed head of the king. The throng in the church shouted, To Charles the August, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, long life and victory! Charlemagne is said to have been surprised by the coronation, declaring that he would not have come into the church had he known the popes plan. However, some historians say the pope would not have dared to act without Charlemagnes knowledge. The coronation was the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. Though Charlemagne did not use the title, he is considered the first Holy Roman emperor (see Holy Roman Empire). Reform and Renaissance Charlemagne had deep sympathy for the peasants and believed that government should be for the benefit of the governed. When he came to the throne, various local governors, called counts, had become lax and oppressive. To reform them, he expanded the work of investigators, called missi dominici. He prescribed their duties in documents called capitularies and sent them out in teams of twoa churchman and a noble. They rode to all parts of the realm, inspecting government, administering justice, and reawakening all citizens to their civil and religious duties. Twice a year Charlemagne summoned the chief men of the empire to discuss its affairs. In all problems he was the final arbiter, even in church issues, and he largely unified church and state. Charlemagne was a tireless reformer who tried to improve his peoples lot in many ways. He set up money standards to encourage commerce, tried to build a Rhine-Danube canal, and urged better farming methods. He especially worked to spread education and Christianity in every class of people. He revived the Palace School at Aachen, his capital. He set up other schools, opening them to peasant boys as well as nobles. Charlemagne never stopped studying. He brought an English monk, Alcuin, and other scholars to his court. He learned to read Latin and some Greek but apparently did not master writing. At meals, instead of having jesters perform, he listened to men reading from learned works. To revive church music, Charlemagne had monks sent from Rome to train his Frankish singers. To restore some appreciation of art, he brought valuable pieces from Italy. An impressive monument to his religious devotion is the cathedral at Aachen, which he built and where he was buried (see Aachen). At Charlemagnes death in 814 only one of his three sons, Louis, was living. Louiss weak rule brought on the rise of civil wars and revolts. After his death his three quarreling sons split the empire between them by the Partition of Verdun in 843.
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