Sunday, February 24, 2019

Psychology Perspectives

This deportmentist perspective is that we plenty as sealed any(prenominal) type of behavior by looking at what the person has scamed. Pesonality traits for utilisation shyness, corporate trust, and optimism. Pavlov (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING) Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist working with chases to investigate their digestive systems. The dogs tested where link up to harness, and Pavlov attached monitor to their stomachs and mouths so he could measure the skunke of salvation. He noniced when the labo let outory assistant came in with the food before the dog had actually tasted the food the dog began to salivate.Pavlov speculated that the dog salivating because it had conditioned to associate the laboratory assistant with the food. This is when his theory began. Food robotlikeally led to the receipt of salivation. Since salivation is an automatic solution, he called this immeasurable response. This means a response that regularly occurs when an unconditi championd inp ut is presented. As the food automatically leads to this response, he called this an unconditioned excitant this means a stimulus that regularly and consistently leads to an automatic (not learned) response.Pavlov and so presented food at the homogeneous time as the gong overly see if the dog would learn to associate the bell with food. After some(prenominal) goes the dog learned that the bell associated with food and began to salivate when mediocre the bell rung and no food was presented. This is called conditioned response this means a sunrise(prenominal), learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that mimics the response to unconditioned stimulus, it had learned the conditioned response of salivation to the conditioned stimulus (the bell).Conditioned stimulus means a neutral stimulus that, when paired with the unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned (learned) response, just as the unconditioned response used to. muleteer (OPERANT CONDITIONING) Burrhus Fre deric mule driver, an American psychologist who worked mostly with rats and pigeons, to discover some of the key principles of learning bran-new behaviors. He used a famous device, called a Skinner lash. The box contained a leaver which, when closeted, throw overboardd a food pellet into the box, this reinforcing lever-pressing deportment.At first when he rat is in the box it pull up stakes be running just about(predicate) sniffing his new surroundings, which at some point it, will press the leaver, relinquish a food pellet. After a while when the rat has repeatedly performed this action, it will learn that this demeanour (pressing the leaver) I automatically followed by the release of a food pellet (the consequence). As the pellet is experienced as reinforcing (something that the rat would like to collapse more(prenominal) of), you called this plus reinforcement, this is happens when the consequence pursual a busy is experienced as desirable.Skinner so used a dis confirming reinforcement which is when behaviour results in a consequence that removes something unpleasant. The prejudicious reinforcement he used was a actually low galvanizing current on the floor of the Skinner box. The current could be de-activated if the rat pressed the lever. Social learning theory Role models ar very substantial. We can learn new behaviour from anyone but we imitate behaviour if we argon strongly regularized by the personal manner we perceive the person. We can be influenced by others when we observe someone who we extol behaving in a particular way we argon more likely to imitate such behaviour.Solomon Asch, complaisant psychologist conducted experiments to show how an singulars behaviour could be influenced and changed because they did not urgency to stand out from a crowd. This is cognize as Majority lick we all consent a powerful hope to fit in and belong. He ga thered a group of 6 mass together. These people were play acting according to instruction. They were joined by a nave participant and asked to crap part in a visual knowledge test. Albert Bandura, theory is we learn from people we are exposed to in our environment. We learn new behaviours from people we observe, either in real life or in the media.This is called observational learning. The person we learn from is know as a post model (someone who has characteristics that inspire us to copy their behaviour). The mathematical operation of imitating is called simulate (a process of basing behaviour, attitude, and style, of speech or dress on someone we admire or would like to be. foundation garment This is a theory of human victimization which emphasises the interaction of biological drives with the social environment. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychologist, who smashed the theory of psychodynamic psychology and the treatment known as psychoanalysis.Freud suggested that what we are aware of is represented in our conscious mind but some of our memor ies, intentings and past experiences are locked up in a part of our mind which he calls unconscious. We cannot rile the contents of our unconscious, but they often leak out in our dreams or whitethornbe just slip out of our tongue. He said proto(prenominal) experiences are overly important is in later life behaviours is understandably illustrated by Freuds reading theory of psychosexual several stages 1. unwritten tip, primary source of interaction occurs by dint of the mouth, so the rooting and imbibe reflex is especially important.The mouth is crucial for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral exam stimulation through rewarding activities such as tasting and suction because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers, the infant also develops a experience of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. 2. Anal decimal point, primary localise of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet t raining the churl has to learn to control his or her bodily steels. Developing this control leads to a esthesis of accomplishment and independence. 3. priapic play, primary focus of the libido is on the genitals.At this age, children also begin to discover the differences betwixt males and females. Freud also sweard that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the overprotects impressions. 4. Latency Stage, The stage begins roughly the time that children enter into coach and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other engagements. 5. Genital Stage, during the nett stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last end-to-end the rest of a persons life.He tries to explain the power of early experience and how this whitethorn influence the adult personality. Freud divided the mind (the psyche) into 3 structures, the id, the ego and the superego. a ccord to Freud these appear at different stages of a childs development and are empowered by the libido (energy). The ID, part of the psyche we are innate(p) with, it operates on the pleasure principle, contains all our basic instincts such as requirement for food, drink, warmth. The Ego, part of the mind whose function it is to moderate the demands of the id and pr eccentric the superego cosmos withal harsh, E. . Repression is a defence mechanism when a person forgets an cause , defense force is also a defence mechanism because your pushing am event or emotion out of consciousness. It operates on the reality principle. The superego, roughly combining weight to a conscience, the superego consists of an internalisation of all the ranks of the right and wrong we become been socialised to conceptualize in. It also contains an image of our ideal self. Erik Erikson, a psychologist who concord mostly with Freuds theory in so far as he thought we developed through a series of sta ges.He also conceived Freuds put too much emphasis on our swear for individual gratification and not enough of our need to be veritable in society and lead meaningful life. The different psychosocial stages Stage 1 (0-1 Year) This stage focuses on how the infant is parented, the positive outcome of this is it dependable, responsive, and caring parenting leads to a sense of trust. The damaging outcome is parenting lacks warmth and affection or is ill-matched leads to mistrust. Stage 2 (1- 3) This stage is be enabled to do things by yourself the positive outcome is being supported in growing independence leads to a sense of autonomy.The negative outcome is being criticised and over-controlled leads to a feeling of un reliablety about your own competence. Stage 3 (3-6) This stage is interaction with the knowledge domain the positive is being encouraged to try out new skills and search the world leads to a sense of initiative. The negative is being hampered in the desire to fin d things out. Stage 4 (6-12) This stage is to understand how things are do and how they work the positive outcome is the ability to succeed at true to life(predicate) tasks leads to a sense of industry. The negative outcome is being published take on tasks they are not ready for leafs to a sense of inferiority.Stage 5 (12-18) This stage is developing a consistent sense of identify by experimentation, the positive outcome is the experimentation leads to a secure sense of identity. The negative outcome is the inabilities to experiment and develop a sense of identify leads to role confusion and a negative identify. Introduction Humanistic psychology looks at human experience from the viewpoint of the individual. It focuses on the idea of free will and the belief that we are all capable of making choices. Two psychologists associated with this entree are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) an American psychologist who believed that we are all seeking to become t he best(p) that we can be, spiritually, physically, emotionally and intellectually. He called this self-actualisation, with this he constructed a theory known as the hierarchy of call for, in which he explained that every human being requires certain basic needs to be met before they will be able to approach the next level. Maslow believed that until our basic physiological needs are met, we will focus on all kind of energies on get them met and not be able to progress further.When we are all surface-houses, come up-nourished and comfortable physically, we begin to focus on our emotional needs, such and the need to belong and be loved and to feel conceit. When our lives are such that these needs are met, we strive to self-actualise. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was particularly interested in the concept of self. there are many aspects of the self but there are ternion important ones, self-esteem, self-concept and internalise. Self-Esteem, this is how valuable we feel as individ uals. Someone with high self-esteem will believe they are loved and loveable and that they are important and valued.On the other hand people with low self-esteem whitethorn feel themselves to be worthless, of no value to anyone else, unloved and unlovable. Self-concept, this is how we see ourselves. In early life this comes from what we are told about ourselves E. g. Youre so Amazing, Youre such a good singer. As we grow older, our ability to think about ourselves develops and we begin to incorporate our own judgements e. g. I was really good at Science, I was the best driver, I wasnt invited to that party- I was unpopular. Internalise, this is to do the way we take in discipline from the outside world and build it into our sense of self.It then becomes part of our feelings, thoughts and beliefs about who we are and what we expect from the world around us. Introduction This psychological perspective gas gained enormous ground since the 1960sm when the influence of behaviourism bega n to wane. A great deal of research has been commit to understanding cognitive processes such as attention , memory , perception, information processing , problem solving , though language and other aspects of cognition. jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist who initially worked on measuring intelligence.He came to a purpose that cognition develops through a series of stages m each new stage building on the previous one after he noticed children the same age made the same mistakes in logic. Stage 1 Sensory-motor (0-2), the world is experienced through motor activity and the senses. Stage 2 Pre- operative (2-7), Language develops along with memory. The child is egocentric and unable to conserve. Stage 3 Concrete operational (7-11), the child can now understand conversation but cannot yet solve problems mentally.Stage 4 Formal operational (11+), the child can now use abstract thoughts and represent problems mentally. Introduction The biological perspective is one of the major approaches to doing psychological research, which is focused on the idea that behaviours pull in biological causes. Common types of biological studies on behaviour include things like the effects of physical child abuse on future adult actions, how injuries such as head trauma affect behaviour, or whether or not criminal behaviour can be explained by genetics.Maturation theory The theory holds that the effects of the environment are miminal. The child is born with a set of genetic instructions passed down from its parents, and its cognitive, physical and other developmental processes merely unfold over time, sooner than being dependent upon the environment to mature. This is the effect, a theory which states that development is delinquent to nature not nature. Arnold Gesell, a psychologist and educator in the 1940s, was interested in child development. He did frequent observations of children, which Gesell formulated a theory known as pus.This theory stated that developmen tal changes in a childs tree trunk or behaviour are a result of the aging process rather than from learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience. Gesells idea of maturation was fixed in the biological, physiological, and evolutionary sciences. As a result, Gesell centered most of his theory on the power of biological forces, which he felt provided nervous impulse for development to occur. Gesell and his contemporaries proposed that development follows an arranged sequence and that the biological and evolutionary history of the species decides the order of this cycle.Maturation supports the idea that each childs unique genetic and biological makeup determines the rate of development despite of other potential environmental influences. Genetic influences on behaviour, genes can affect behaviour in many ways. Some disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia, are caused when both parents pass on the gene for the disorder. Disorders that occur regardless of en vironmental influences, such as those listed above, are genetically determined disorders. This means that the individual who inherits the gene or genes is certain to develop the disorder, regardless of environmental factors.The influence of the nervous and endocrine systems on behaviour, the autonomic system produces its effects through activation of nerve fibres throughout the nervous system, brain and body or by stimulating the release of endocrines from endocrine glands such as adrenal and pineal glands. The hormones are biochemical substances and they are released into the blood stream and have a profound effect on target organs and on behaviour. They are present in very small groups and individual molecules have a very short life, so their effects quickly unfreeze if they are not secreted 24/7.There are all sorts of different hormones in our body including. Melatonin, which is released by the pineal gland and its job, is to act on the brain stem sleep mechanism to help synchr onise the phrases of sleep and activity. The second hormone is testosterone this is released in the testicles in which may influence aggressive behaviour. The last one is oxytocin this is release by the pituitary gland and stimulates the milk deed and female orgasms. Only some hormones are released as a response to external stimuli. For example, the pineal glands respond to reduced daylight by increase production of melatonin.M1 After doing my P1 criteria, Ive look backed and only certain perspectives explain well and here are my opinions on them. These are Skinner (Behaviourist Perspective), Carl Rodgers (Humanistic Perspective), Sigmund Freud (Psychodynamic Approach) and Maslows hierarchy of needs helps explain also. On the other hand, I do not agree that our behaviour is simply down to our genes. In my opinion I believe that the environment and what we surround our self with has a huge impact on our behaviour. Due to this explanation I wear outt think Gesell explains it very cl ear.I think Albert Bandura explains it very well as it is true we do tend to try to be like and call for to be like people we consider as our role model. However, we only copy behaviours that interest us. In my opinion I dont think the biological perspective explains behaviour well as I dont believe that just our genes determine our behaviour, to me there is more to it. Such as our upbringing and environment and personal beliefs. People may say we dont always copy a behaviour that we have seen by observing others as it may be reinforcing negative behaviour and therefore we recognize it as wrong and for those reasons we do not want to copy it.The behaviour could also be something that you dont agree with as it may go against your beliefs or the way you have been brought up E. g. Moral and Values. We are more likely to copy behaviour from someone we know E. g. Peers like Family and Friends or aspire to be like. We are likely not to copy if we dont have the same opinion or if it is si mply against our beliefs or what we have been told. If the person has had a bad experience from doing certain behaviours, then we see it as a lesson and as a result we do not do the same, as we see it as negative behaviour.Another reason is if the outcome of that specific behaviour wasnt something we anticipate. Also if the person who behaved in a certain way. In addition to this we are less likely to copy someone who is being punished for a certain action. We only imitate behaviours that interest us. accordingly, in my opinion I feel like the approach that is best at explaining behaviour is Skinner and his skinner box. I think this is the best approach when explaining behaviour as it is truthful and the outcome have shown this.I also believe it is the most successful as I believe it is true when we are satisfied with something and like the way it works. We will continue to use that assistant as long as it keeps us happy and meets our needs. This is very comparable to what the ra t was doing inside the Skinner box. Whenever the rat felt hungry it would press the lever which would then release a food pellet. The rat then continues to press the lever. This is similar to an individual being satisfies with a service as it is giving the individual what it requires therefore they keep going back.As they see it as a positive experience. Then it became an unpleasant experience when the rat was comely electric shocked once pressing the lever. The rat then learned that it would continue to receive the shock if it continued to press the lever. So the rat learned to preventive as it wasnt having a pleasant experience. This is the same with us, if we started to have a horrible experience somewhere the likeliness is that we would stop apply that service, and in the same way the rat stopped using the lever. Also when we do something where we see positive results, we will carry on.However, when the inappropriate event occurs we will learn to stop carrying out that behav iour as it isnt working in the way we wish. Therefore I believe this is the best approach to behaviour as I feel it is the truest in real life. My second person who I think explains behaviour well is Sigmund Freud. This is because he explained behaviour in a way where people can relate too. As the past we dont often possibly think of but sometimes it may hit us and make us realise that we were solace carrying those memories and past experiences with us but we just didnt realise.He also said they often leak out in dreams and slips of the tongue. Although we dont always think of it as such, it is still there with us and that is what makes us dream about it. We then realise that it is still on our mind and it is something that is still creating an effect on us, even if the event occurred many years ago. My last person I agree with is Carl Rodgers. I judge what a child has been told throughout their life, will affect who and how they develop when they are older.For example, someone wh o has been called horrible names, will feel of no value will develop a low self esteem and confidence and they wont feel good enough to do certain events. They will not feel very constructive about themselves. Therefore they may give up on life and may fille many good opportunities. However someone who has always be pushed in life and have been told that they are smart and will do well, may actually go on in life and do well as they feel they have people that believe them. Therefore they believe in themselves and so this person will have developed a high self esteem and may be quite.

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